Beijing printing industry in the hottest developme

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The developing printing industry in Beijing after the founding of new China in 1949, Beijing, as the capital of the Republic, has become the national political and cultural center, as well as the concentration of national scientific research, education and publishing. The party and the government attach great importance to the construction and development of the printing industry, especially the book printing industry. Since 1950, a huge amount of money has been invested in the planned establishment of a batch of professional printing plants for books and periodicals in Beijing. Especially since the reform and opening up, the printing industry has developed rapidly. With the strong support of the government, the party and the government continue to introduce foreign advanced printing technology and equipment, transform old printing enterprises, and continue to build new printing plants. After more than 40 years of efforts, the printing enterprises in Beijing have grown from 280 in the early days of the founding of the people's Republic of China to more than 1800 today. The development of reform and opening up for more than 20 years is particularly prominent, which has made the printing industry in the capital have a considerable scale. It has become an important modern urban industry with diverse economic components such as state-owned, collective, joint-stock and "three capital", which is jointly developed by urban and rural areas and meets the needs of the market economy. It has become an urban industrial system with a wide range of categories, from general black-and-white printing and binding to multicolor color printing books and periodicals, parts, high-end hardcover packaging and printing products

I. comprehensive development of books, newspapers, periodicals, packaging and printing technology

1. Development of books and periodicals printing technology

deepening of reform and opening up, books, newspapers Ahmed amine ouali, a researcher at the Institute of lightweight structures, said: "We use natural fibers such as flax to replace glass fiber or carbon fiber. In the early 1980s, Beijing printing enterprises strengthened the technological transformation, and some large and medium-sized printing enterprises established manual Phototypesetting workshops, which made the transition from embossing to offset printing. In the mid-1980s, the successful development of Huaguang electronic Phototypesetting Technology made a leap in China's Phototypesetting Technology, and manual Phototypesetting Technology developed to laser Phototypesetting Technology, resulting in a large amount of typesetting Increase in amplitude. In the early 1990s, book printing enterprises basically eliminated the lead discharge process, and large and medium-sized enterprises generally adopted electronic laser Phototypesetting Technology, saying goodbye to "lead and fire"

in terms of color plate making, in the mid-1960s, Beijing printing industry began to introduce electronic color separators. In the 1980s, different types of electronic color separators were introduced from Germany, Britain and Japan, which greatly reformed the plate making technology in Beijing. In the early 1990s, the success of Beida Founder group in developing a color desktop printing system broke the long-standing monopoly of foreign electronic color separators on China's color printing market, and raised China's domestic color plate making to a new level. Since the mid-1990s, Beijing has basically eliminated the pure electronic color separation process, completely changed the backward face of Beijing prepress color plate making, raised Beijing color plate making technology to a height close to the world level, and met the requirements of high-end color printing

The major reform of typesetting technology will inevitably bring new breakthroughs in printing technology. With the popularization of Laser Phototypesetting Technology and the continuous development of offset printing, the transformation from lead printing to offset printing was completed in the early 1990s. Beijing book and periodical printing enterprises have completely eliminated lead typesetting and lead printing at the end of the 20th century. At present, the color printing capacity of multi-color offset printing machines in printing enterprises has fully met the needs of society, and the printing quality is also constantly improving

since the mid-1980s, Beijing's post press processing technology has first shifted from a single variety to a multi variety, high-quality, high-end processing direction in the country; In the 1990s, foreign equipment such as Kolbus hardcover linkage production line and Martini paperback wireless binding linkage production line were introduced. The foreign equipment was used together with a variety of advanced stand-alone machines, which met the needs of Beijing for more short editions of publications, more special formats, more fine products and hardcover books, greatly shortened the printing and binding production cycle, and greatly improved the binding quality

in the past 20 years, Beijing's book and periodical printing industry has made great progress in layout, printing, packaging and so on. The publishing cycle of books has been shortened from five months to 30 days (7-10 days in the special case of the synergy of the three). The quality of prints has been greatly improved, and the quality of some of them has approached or reached the level of advanced countries and Hong Kong, China. In recent years, the great works "Encyclopedia of China", "Chinese Dictionary", "complete works of Chinese art" and so on have had an important impact at home and abroad

2. The development of newspaper printing technology

Beijing has gathered central ministries and commissions, colleges and universities, military and municipal major newspaper printing plants, which undertake the printing and binding tasks of 267 newspapers, 2427 periodicals and more than 1200 internal information publications. Therefore, it has become the publishing, printing and distribution center of Chinese newspapers and periodicals. Since the Seventh Five Year Plan, the state has formulated a plan for the transformation of newspaper printing technology centered on Beijing, aiming to equip the main newspaper printing plants in Beijing with the most advanced technology to meet the needs of the development of publishing industry. In the early 1980s, the people's printing factory introduced an ultra-high speed offset rotary machine, which provided experience for Beijing to realize the offset printing of newspapers. After 1985, Beijing Xinhua printing factory, economic printing factory and Beijing printing factory gradually adopted laser phototypesetting system and eliminated lead printing equipment. By the late 1980s, Beijing printing factory had adopted Laser Phototypesetting, realizing the transformation from hot discharge to cold discharge, and from lead printing to offset printing. In recent years, advanced newspaper printing equipment has increased rapidly, and the introduction of multi-color rotary offset printing machines is the most prominent. The large and medium-sized machines introduced successively mainly include world famous brand products such as Gauss and Roland. After 20 years of technological transformation, the Beijing newspaper printing plant has undergone earth shaking changes. The printing volume of newspapers has increased, and color newspapers have developed greatly, and continue to develop towards double-sided color. The progress of Beijing newspaper printing technology has made Beijing newspaper printing technology close to the world advanced level

3. Development of packaging and printing technology

Beijing used to be very backward in packaging and printing, with low product quality, few varieties, poor technical equipment and serious lack of production capacity. In order to adapt to the development of the socialist market economy, Beijing's packaging and printing industry has received the attention of the relevant government departments and spent a lot of money to speed up the technological transformation. After 20 years of efforts, it has successively introduced thick paper multicolor offset printing machines, high-end unit type flexographic printing production lines, electronic color separation machines, color desktop systems, gravure printing machines, film free electronic engraving machines, corrugated paper electronic production lines, and technologically advanced post press processing and finishing equipment, Such as die-cutting indentation, paste box, glazing and other equipment, has greatly changed the backward face of Beijing's packaging and printing industry. The production means have changed from manual operation to mechanization and automation. The printing process has gradually changed from relief printing to computer plate making, multicolor offset printing, flexo printing and gravure printing. New processes such as self-adhesive printing, silk printing, transfer printing, composite packaging printing and laser holographic printing have also been added

now Beijing packaging and printing has established a relatively complete emerging industrial system, which is roughly divided into five categories according to products: printing, cartons and cartons, iron printing can making, plastic and composite packaging, carton processing machinery, and has undertaken supporting services for light industry, textiles, food, tobacco and alcohol, medicine, household chemicals, clothing, electronics and other industries in the city and other provinces

driven by market demand in recent years, some book and magazine printing plants in Beijing have also adjusted their production structure and developed the packaging and decoration printing industry. In order to meet the market demand, book printing enterprises such as Beijing offset printing factory, Beijing Xinhua printing factory, Beijing No. 1 printing factory, Beijing foreign language printing factory, Beijing Baihua Color Printing Co., Ltd., printing factory of Chemical Industry Press, 1201 factory, etc., have also successively introduced thick paper multicolor offset printing machines, automatic die-cutting machines, automatic box pasting machines, flexible printing production lines, etc., and carried out businesses such as color carton printing and trademark printing, At the same time, some Sino foreign joint venture packaging enterprises have been established, which has brought the production capacity of packaging, decoration and printing in Beijing to a new level

4. Development of rapid printing technology

after more than 20 years of development, Beijing rapid printing has achieved a variety of equipment forms and complete supporting facilities, from desktop small offset printing machines, floor type small offset printing machines, computer-controlled color small offset printing machines to today's digital printing machines

with the emergence of digital printing in the early 1990s, Beijing has introduced many digital printing machines, which has greatly developed Beijing's rapid color printing market. However, at present, because the consumables used in digital printing machines need to be imported, the product price is still relatively high, so it has no fundamental impact on the light printing market dominated by small offset printing machines, but its development trend cannot be underestimated, and digital printing technology will replace offset printing in the traditional sense

after several major technological transformations and high tides of introduction, although the overall level of Beijing's printing industry has been greatly improved and has made great progress, there are still problems. As an international metropolis, the overall level of printing technology and equipment still lags far behind that of developed countries. The overall quality level of books and periodicals printing in Beijing is not high, the low-level printing capacity is surplus, and the high-quality color printing capacity is insufficient. As a result, many high-end prints are exported to Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong and other developed regions. The utilization rate of prepress processing equipment in most existing state-owned printing enterprises is not high, and the source of activity is insufficient. There are still problems in the quality of books and textbooks

the reason is that in recent years, a large number of short edition activities have appeared in the printing market, and the specifications and sizes have changed a lot, which greatly reduces the utilization rate of high-speed binding production lines, resulting in many imported binding linkage lines being idle. Second, large quantities of binding activities flow into binding factories with outdated equipment and backward technology around Beijing. These enterprises use their cheap labor to bind manually, resulting in a large number of books and periodicals with poor quality

the overall scale of Beijing's packaging and printing industry is small, and the ability to produce high-end products is insufficient. The overall level of packaging and printing ability does not meet the needs of its status as an international metropolis and its rapid economic development

II. The development direction of Beijing's printing industry in the new century

it is not only necessary for Beijing to develop its printing industry, but also has huge market potential and unique conditions. Beijing is the political and cultural center of the country, with a concentration of national party, government and military organs and major scientific research institutions; Beijing is the largest publishing base in China, with more than 40% of the publishing houses and 24% of the periodicals in the country. The types and print volume of books and newspapers account for about 20% - 30% of the country; Beijing is a national international exchange center, gathering diplomatic institutions of various countries in China, more than 5000 foreign enterprise representative offices and more than 10000 "three capital" enterprises. Every year, there are a large number of international and domestic conferences and exhibitions, as well as various economic, cultural, scientific and technological and commercial exchange activities. There are also increasingly developed tertiary industries such as finance, commerce, tourism, advertising, consulting services, etc. All this has created a huge demand for printed matter. According to the development goals put forward in the "2000 and 2001 development plan of the publishing industry" issued by the publication administration, the total print of books and periodicals increased by 7% and the total print of newspapers by 10%, indicating that the market demand in the future will show a rapid growth trend

in order to make the Beijing printing industry suitable for the green button to indicate that the oil cylinder should meet the development needs of the new century, 1. First, actively promote and support the joint-stock reform of state-owned enterprises, encourage the asset restructuring between enterprises, so that all the property formed by the investment of the enterprise's investors really becomes the property rights of legal persons enjoyed according to the legal personality, operate independently according to law, and be responsible for their own profits and losses

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